NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4
NINO3.4 Index

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.

Site search


Enter a postcode or town name for local weather, or text to search the site. » advanced search

Warm, dry end to 2019 increasingly likely for NSW

09:31 AEDT The ongoing influence of two climate drivers will tip the odds in favour of drier and warmer weather in NSW during the final eight weeks of 2019.

Help with Farmonline Weather