NINO3.4 Index

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  • SOI
  • NINO3.4
NINO3.4 Index

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Fires to fizzle thanks to biggest rain in months

16:39 AEST The biggest rain in months due to scatter across parts of Queensland and New South Wales later this week will be far from drought breaking, but it will improve air quality, help shrink bushfires and reduce fire danger for weeks to come.

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